The following 14 atmospheric simulation chambers (in pink on the map) will provide access in the framework of ATMO-ACCESS:
Aarhus University Research on Aerosols chamber (AURA)
Location: Aarhus, Denmark
The core of the AURA facility is a 5 m3 teflon chamber suspended from a metal frame in a 24 m3 cold room with temperature control in the range -16 to 26°C. AURA offers rare opportunities for studies at sub-zero temperatures and the possibility of temperature ramping during experiments. AURA unique possibilities for studying sea spray ageing and properties in the atmosphere through operation of a new temperature regulated sea spray simulation chamber (AEGOR) in connection with the chamber. State of the art on-line methods are available for gas and particle characterisation both online and for off-line chemical analysis.
Kuopio Atmospheric Simulation Chambers (KASC)
Location: Kuopio, Finland
Website address: https://www.uef.fi/en/web/aerosol/facilities
KASC facility offers possibility for the holistic approach to tackle the relevant questions on anthropogenic emissions, their formation and aging and interaction with biogenic emissions, atmospheric processes and finally the adverse health effects. The facility comprises: 1) KASC1: 9 m3 FEP Teflon chamber with UV lights and humidification systems & ozone generators, can be connected to plant enclosures; 2) ILMARI chamber: an air conditioned 29 m3 FEP Teflon chamber with UV lights and humidification systems & ozone generators, 3) ILMARI emission sources connected to the chamber with dilution systems, 4) PEAR flow tube offers a possibility for photochemical processing of aerosol samples at high flow rates, 5) ILMARI Toxicological unit: on-line air-liquid interface cell exposure unit and analysis methods for health-related toxicological effects, including inflammation, oxidative stress, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. These analyses are performed with state-of-the-art analysis equipment for detailed gas and aerosol phase chemical and physical characterisation.
Experimental Multiphasic Atmospheric Simulation Chamber (CESAM)
Location: Créteil, France
Website address: http://cesam.cnrs.fr
1) CESAM is an atmospheric simulation chamber dedicated to the study of multiphase atmospheric processes such as the formation of secondary aerosol or gaseous compounds in cloud-phase reactivity. The particular design of this chamber allows to work at low enough levels of concentration to ensure that the studied processes are representative of those occurring in the natural atmosphere; The chamber is equipped with the most modern tools for metrology of aerosols and their precursors. This infrastructure is unique because the lifetime of particles in the reactor is very long (up to 4 days) due to the non-electrostatic properties of the material of the chamber. It is possible to generate clouds in the presence of light; the level of wall cleanliness is very high (and it can be baked under vacuum). 2) CSA-LISA is a photochemical reactor designed for the experimental simulation of chemical mechanisms governing the evolution of organic pollutants in the atmosphere. It allows the study of chemical reactions in homogeneous gas phase.
Outdoor Atmospheric Simulation Chamber of Orléans (HELIOS)
Location: Orléans, France
Website address: https://helios-cnrs.org/
HELIOS is one of the most advanced and largest outdoor atmospheric simulation chambers in Europe and is especially suited to investigate the chemical processes under realistic atmospheric conditions. HELIOS is positioned on the top of ICARE-CNRS building in Orléans (47°50’18.39N; 1°56’40.03E). The chamber is made of FEP film ensuring more than 90 % solar light transmission. The available large range of complementary and highly sensitive instruments (in-situ FTIR, PTR-ToF-MS (Ionicon 8000), Aerodyne ToF-CIMS, ATD-GC-MS, UHPLC, IC, SMPS, Lopap, HCHO (Aerolaser), Spectroradiometer, O3, NO and NO2 Analysers, and CIMS for OH and CRDS for NO3 radicals measurements when needed) enables investigating the radical chemistry, gas phase processes and aerosol formation under realistic atmospheric conditions. HELIOS is dedicated mainly to the investigation of the gas phase processes and radical chemistry under different conditions (sunlight and dark). HELIOS has the capabilities for intercomparison and tests of instruments and development. HELIOS is associated with the Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers en région Centre (Orléans University, INSU-CNRS).
Aerosol Chamber of the Atmospheric Chemistry Department (ACD-C) and Turbulent Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS-T)
Location: Leipzig, Germany
Website address: https://www.tropos.de
ACD-C and LACIS-T are world-widely unique infrastructures. ACD-C is a twin chamber with a broad online and offline instrumentation to investigate VOC degradation mechanism, SOA formation processes, multiphase chemistry as well as the chemical composition in gas and particle phase, and toxicological effects of formed SOA. LACIS-T is a moist-air wind tunnel for investigating aerosol-cloud-turbulence-interaction processes under well-defined fluid- and thermodynamic conditions. Specifically, LACIS-T is intensively used for studying the influence of turbulent temperature and water vapor fluctuations, and consequently saturation fluctuations, on the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles and their activation to droplets. LACIS-T offers a variety of state-of-the-art and high-end peripheral instrumentation for generating and physically characterizing aerosol and cloud particles. Coupled computational fluid and particle/droplet dynamical models are available to determine suitable experimental conditions and to interpret experimental results.
Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA)
Location: Karlsruhe, Germany
Website address: https://www.imk-aaf.kit.edu
AIDA is a KIT facility for atmospheric chemistry, aerosol and cloud research. Its work horse is the aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA-classic with 84 m3 volume, which can be operated in the full range of pressure, temperature, and relative humidity conditions in the Earth’s troposphere and stratosphere, including the simulation of cloud conditions to temperatures as low as -90°C. A second so-called dynamic cloud chamber AIDA-d came into operation in December 2019, which can be operated as an isothermal adiabatic expansion chamber in the temperature range from +30°C to -55°C. Users are offered both technical support and scientific expertise to efficiently operate the facility for their goals. A new sunlight simulator will also allow to investigate gas-phase and aerosol processes induced by photochemistry. New cloud probes and ice nucleating particle instruments was been developed to also offer services for instrument development, test, intercomparison and calibration as part of the activities of the TC CIS unit CCice.
Simulation of Atmospheric Photochemistry in a Large Reaction Chamber (SAPHIR/SAPHIR-PLUS)
Location: Jülich, Germany
SAPHIR provides a platform for reproducible studies of the atmospheric degradation of biogenic and anthropogenic trace gases and the build-up of secondary particles and pollutants. The large outdoor chamber is of cylindrical shape (volume 270m3) and has a shutter system that can be quickly opened and closed to expose the air mixtures to natural sunlight. The high purity of the air supply and the large volume to surface ratio allows running experiments at low, atmospheric concentrations of trace gases with only minor influences of chamber wall interactions, so that the chemical transformation of trace gases and aerosol can be observed over a long period up to several days. Either artificial trace gas mixtures can be added or emissions from plants that are housed in a separate plant chamber (SAPHIR-PLUS). The SAPHIR chamber is equipped with a comprehensive, unique set of sensitive state-of-the-art instruments for radicals, traces gases, aerosols, and physical parameters. Many trace gases are detected using two independent measurements techniques to be able to identify potential measurement artefacts. The chamber is also ideal for instrument testing and comparisons under realistic conditions.
Quartz Reactor (QUAREC)
Location: Wuppertal, Germany
Website address: https://www.ptc.uni-wuppertal.de
The QUAREC facility comprises now the quartz atmospheric simulation chamber QUAREC-ASC which is an evacuable, medium sized (1 m3), quartz made indoor reaction chamber. State-of-the-art instruments allow monitoring in-situ, online and offline the reacting VOCs and products. Additionally the formation of particles can be monitored. QUAREC allows high quality investigations of homogeneous gas-phase reaction systems and offers a comprehensive training program.
Irish Atmospheric Simulation Chamber (IASC)
Location: Cork, Ireland
Website address: https://www.ucc.ie/en/crac/
IASC is a custom-built atmospheric simulation chamber specially designed for investigating atmospheric processes, as well as testing and developing new atmospheric measurement techniques. The 27m3 chamber is a FEP Teflon foil cuboid supported in a frame and surrounded by UV-visible lamps in a temperature-controlled housing. The chamber is fitted with various ports and valves, as well as an access door which allows items to be positioned inside the chamber. The comprehensive range of instruments includes: i) Unique custom-built spectroscopy system for in situ measurements of gases, radicals and particles. ii) State-of-the-art mass spectrometer for monitoring gases and particles at atmospherically relevant concentrations. iii) Continuous online measurements of gases and particles. iv) Two instruments that are unique within the consortium are also available: Single particle mass spectrometer for online measurements of aerosol composition and Wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor for measurements of biological particles.
Chamber for Atmospheric Modelling and Bio-Aerosol Research (ChAMBRe)
Location: Genoa, Italy
Website address: https://www.labfisa.ge.infn.it
ChAMBRe has been designed for bioaerosol studies. The stainless steel chamber has a volume of 2.23 m3. The aerosol lifetime varies from 20 to 2 hour. A fan favours the mixing of gaseous and aerosol species. Particle and reactive gases concentration are continuously monitored. Parts of the facility are the equipment and the procedures to grow, inject and extract bacteria strains inside the chamber while preserving their viability. Bacteria and/or other bioaerosol in liquid solution can be injected in ChAMBRe by nebulizers, specifically designed to preserve the viability of microorganisms for aerobiology research. Bioaerosol can be extracted/collected from/in the chamber both by a set of impingers and petri dishes with culture media. A bio-aerosol on-line spectrometer will be installed in summer 2020.
Environmental Simulation Chamber from the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi (ESC-Q-UAIC)
Location: Iași, Romania
The environmental simulation chamber (ESC-Q-UAIC) consists of three quartz tubes connected by flanges with a total length of 4.2 m, has an inner diameter of 0.48 m and a volume of about 780 L. Sampling lines are appropriately disposed for on-line/off-line measurements of various chemical parameters. Both actinic and black-light lamps, evenly spaced around the reaction vessel, can be used to undertake photolysis processes under simulated solar light conditions. The chamber is equipped with a White type multiple-reflection mirror with a base length of (4.1 ± 0.1) m and a total optical path length of (492 ± 0.2) m for sensitive in situ long path absorption monitoring of reactants and products. The IR spectra are recorded with a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1 using a Vertex 80v FTIR spectrometer. State-of-the-art instruments and conventional analytical can be used for off- and on-line analyses. Upon our knowledge these facilities are unique in Romania and in Eastern Europe.
European PHOtoreactor (EUPHORE)
Location: Paterna, Spain
Website address: http://www.ceam.es/WWWEUPHORE/home.htm
EUPHORE is equipped with a broad variety of analytical instruments to analyse VOCs, radical species, aerosols, organic nitrates, hydroperoxides, polyoxygenated compounds, etc. On-line techniques include optical systems, monitors, radiation and particle analysers. Off-line techniques for analysis in the gas and particle phase. Main research areas: atmospheric behaviour of biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs, degradation products, potential formation of ozone and aerosols. Testing of depolluting technologies, instrumentation, etc. EUPHORE is one of the major outdoor simulation chamber facilities world-wide comprising two hemispherical domes (200 m3 each). It is used in the research and follow-up of atmospheric chemical processes, which can be simulated under near-real conditions given its large size and the use of natural light.
PSI Atmospheric Chemistry Simulation Chambers (PACS-C2)
Location: Villigen, Switzerland
Website address: https://www.psi.ch/en/lac
PACS-C2 consists of a stationary 27 m3 chamber and a stationary 9 m3 cool chamber (-10 to 30 °C). PSI has a full complement for state-of-the-art instrumentation. The chamber can be equipped with the following gas-phase instruments: a proton-transfer reaction time of flight mass spectrometer, a chemical ionisation atmospheric pressure interface time of flight MS, as well as the standard NOx and ozone monitors. A whole suite of instruments is available for the characterisation of the particle phase.
Manchester Aerosol Chamber (MAC)
Location: Manchester, United Kingdom
The Manchester aerosol chamber (MAC) has been designed to study atmospheric processes of multicomponent aerosols under controlled conditions. MAC is coupled to a very wide range of instrumentation for online determination of particle composition, size), hygroscopicity and cloud droplet activation, with in situ multi-pass extinction measurements of aerosol. The variable geometry 18m3 Teflon chamber uses computer-controlled fill-flush cycling for cleaning and operation and the entire chamber can be rapidly evacuated through a filter for offline analysis. A rapid cleaning regime allows a high duty cycle of clean experiments. Carefully monitored and controlled (arc and halogen) illumination is used to replicate the solar spectrum. Precise high flow conditioning of the air outside the chamber allows tight RH and temperature control. MAC is frequently coupled to real emission sources (plant chamber, engine, woodburner, cookstoves) to study systems of real-world complexity.