22 Observational Facilities (in blue on the map) will provide access in the framework of ATMO-ACCESS:
Sonnblick Observatory (SBO)
Location: Salzburg, Austria
Web site address: www.sonnblick.net
The Sonnblick Observatory is a climate, mountain and environmental research station in the Austrian Alps located at an altitude of 3.106m. Since 1886, the observatory has been pursuing measurements and research in the fields of atmosphere, cryosphere and seismology, biosphere and hydrology. The Sonnblick Observatory operates atmospheric measurements related to ACTRIS and ICOS/InGOS and is represented in numerous monitoring programs and networks. The observatory can be reached by cable car or by an 8hrs hike. The cable car can also be used for profile measurements from the bottom station to the summit (1.500m height difference). In addition, the observatory is staffed around the clock with at least two employees who can support projects.
Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO)
Location: Agia Marina Xyliatou, Cyprus
Web site address: https://www.cyi.ac.cy/index.php/cao.html
It is a Long-term atmospheric (in-situ and remote sensing) observation site relevant to ACTRIS and ICOS/InGOS It is composed of 3 sites CAO Infrastructure: remote site in the centre of the island (535m above sea level). 1) Three co-located building at Agia Marina Xyliatou (30 km west of Nicosia). 2) Comprehensive suite of long-term ACTRIS aerosol in-situ and remote sensing observations. 3) A team of 4 Technical Research Specialists and 1 experienced station manager fully dedicated to the operation of CAO. It is a unique infrastructure located in the Middle East and the only EU infrastructure impacted by desert dust from the Arabian Peninsula and impacted by long-range transport of Middle East air pollution; It is the only EU infrastructure with a co-located facility dedicated to atmospheric profiling with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (USRL Facility: http://usrl.cyi.ac.cy) also part of ATMO-ACCESS.
National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice (NAOK)
Location: Košetice, Czech Republic
Web site address: www.actris-ri.cz
NAOK consists of two parts: background station, established in 1988 (operated by CHMI) and 250 m tall atmospheric tower, constructed in 2013. The capacity of NAOK is formed by research and operating supplement of four partners. NAOK is one of the first sites where ACTRIS and ICOS are coordinated. NAOK provides an open access to the various data sets and following technologies: meteorology: air quality parameters, gaseous mercury, standard air quality measurements; deposition; chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosols, trace gases: VOCs – canister sampling, High, medium and low volume active air sampling devices for gas and particle phases of the atmosphere; Passive air samplers; Wet deposition samplers.
Pallas-Sodankylä Atmosphere-Ecosystem Supersite (FMI PAL-SOD)
Location: Muonio, Finland
Web site address: www.fmi.fi
Pallastunturi is a GAW/ICOS/ACTRIS site located in the Finnish sub-Arctic. Surroundings represent a pristine background location, with main station, Sammaltunturi on an Artic fjell (560m a.s.l.) occasionally surrounded by clouds. Harmonized measurements of greenhouse gases (concentrations and fluxes), in situ aerosol properties (physical, optical and chemical properties). Standard air quality parameters. Continuous and campaign based in situ cloud microphysical properties. Vertical aerosol distribution by LIDAR, columnar properties by sunphotometry. Semi- continuous cloud radar measurements. Sub-Arctic UAV- base: vertical in situ profiling utilizing drones and a tethered balloon system with permit to fly inside clouds. Sodankylä (67°22’ N, 26°39’ E) hosts programs exploring upper air chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric column and profile measurements, snow/soil hydrology, biosphere-atmosphere interaction and satellite studies. CO2 and CH4 fluxes are measured by micrometeorological methods.
Station for Measuring Ecosystem – Atmosphere Relations II (SMEAR II)
Location: Juupajoki, Finland
Web site address: http://www.atm.helsinki.fi/SMEAR/index.php/smear-ii
The SMEAR II represents background boreal forest site consisting of main site at scots pine forest and additional flux measurements in wetland fen and boreal lake environments. Continuous measurements since 1995. SMEAR contributes to ICOS, ACTRIS and eLTER RIs and is a truly multidisciplinary site. The observations include detailed in-situ aerosol and ion physical, chemical and optical characterisation, trace gases, greenhouse gases, cloud profiling and aerosol remote sensing instrumentation include sun photometer, ceilometer, lidar, cloud radar, precipitation radar, and microwave radiometer. Observation platforms in pine forest, boreal lake and wetland areas are available. Drones and tethered balloon borne observations can be used at the site. SMEAR supports research e.g. on atmospheric composition, forest ecology, ecosystem-atmosphere interaction and climate change.
Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique SIRTA
Location: Plateau de Saclay, France (25 km South of Paris)
Web site address: http://www.sirta.fr
SIRTA is a French national atmospheric research observatory dedicated to research on cloud, aerosol, trace-gas physical and chemical processes (ACTRIS) and high precision analysis of ICOS/InGOS variables. The SIRTA observatory is supported by CNRS, Ecole polytechnique and CEA in collaboration with five other research performing organisations. It is operated by permanent staff of 15 scientists and engineers. SIRTA is located on the Saclay plateau, in a semi-urban environment, 25 km south of the Paris city centre (48.7N, 2.2E), influenced by local and/or regional air masses (depending on the meteorological conditions). It gathers an ensemble of state-of-the-art active and passive remote sensing instruments and in-situ sensors deployed by several research laboratories. The SIRTA infrastructure supports research on formation mechanisms and chemical processes of gaseous and particulate compounds and all physical processes related to greenhouse gases, aerosols and clouds. The 2 associated centres of expertise are located in Palaiseau (CCRES) and Gif-sur-Yvette (ACMCC).
Observatoire de Physique de l’Atmosphère à La Réunion (OPAR)
Location: La Réunion, France
Web site address: https://osur.univ-reunion.fr/observations/osu-r-stations/opar
Description of the infrastructure: OPAR is an atmospheric observatory at La Réunion, located on the Maïdo mount (2160 m a.s.l., lee side on the tropical island). Its situation allows users to get unique observing conditions both night (clear skies for teledetection, free tropospheric in-situ measurements) and day (marine boundary layer perturbed by local emissions). OPAR also provides a unique observing location to study processes linked to the ascent (descent) branch of the Hadley cell during the austral summer (winter) period. OPAR accommodates a large sector of ACTRIS and ICOS instrumentation compliant with: NDACC, FTIR, AERONET, EARLINET, TCCON, ACTRIS-in-situ and other instruments. Areas of research include dynamics and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere, tropical cyclone formation and intensification, atmospheric exchanges at major interfaces, long-range transport of aerosols and species. OPAR has worldwide collaborations on boundary layer to thermosphere topics and is also involved in numerous multi-disciplinary studies.
Cézeaux-Aulnat Opme Puy de Dôme (CO-PDD)
Location: Clermont-Ferrand, France
Web site address: http://wwwobs.univ-bpclermont.fr/SO/mesures/index.php
The puy de Dôme station (Global GAW PUY station) is a reference site of the European and national research infrastructures ACTRIS and ICOS. It hosts a large number of in situ instruments for the long-term monitoring of atmospheric reactive and greenhouse gases, microphysical and chemical properties of aerosol particles, and clouds in their meteorological context. A wind tunnel allows more particularly the study of ice cloud microphysical properties under natural atmospheric conditions. The PUY station is completed by additional sites located at lower altitudes and adding the vertical dimension to the atmospheric observations: Opme equipped with a wind profiler, and instruments for rain and meteorological measurements, Cézeaux equipped with a multi-wavelength lidar and a meteorological radio-sounding reception device, Aulnat equipped with a low layer wind profiler. More than 70 atmospheric variables are currently measured at PUY, Cézeaux, Aulnat and Opme.
TROPOS Research Station Melpitz (MEL)
Location : Melpitz, Germany
The research site is situated in the rural background for lowlands in Central Europe. The size segregated long-time characterisation of chemical and physical aerosol properties by offline methods in combination with chemical analysis for ions OC/EC and for specific organic tracers and state of the art online methods provides a comprehensive dataset. Melpitz is a unique research infrastructure in Europe and a perfect site to study changes in atmospheric composition depending from air-mass inflow. The Access user can benefit from a comprehensive dataset and experiences for integrating the Melpitz site in projects investigating source apportionment of natural and anthropogenic trace components. International users will profit from the broad range of expertise in tropospheric research by the TROPOS staff.
Location: Finokalia, Crete, Greece.
Web site address: http://finokalia.chemistry.uoc.gr/
The FKL sampling station is situated on the north coast of Crete. The station is located at the top of a hilly elevation (250 m a.s.l.). No significant human activities occur at a distance shorter than 15km within the above mentioned sector. The area is characterized by the existence of two well-distinguished seasons equally distributed throughout the year: The dry season (from April to September) and the wet season (from October to April). Observations at FKL are related to ACTRIS: e.g., in situ aerosol characterisation, gas precursors as well as an AERONET station and to ICOS. It is located in a unique environment: FKL is in the southern most point of Europe, with high insolation which favours photochemical activity and fast processing of aerosols.
AThens MOnitoring Supersite (ATMOS)
Location: Athens, Greece
Web site address: http://apcg.meteo.noa.gr/index.php/infrastructure
The Athens Supersite (ATMOS) is a unique and the largest Research Infrastructure in Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean containing state of the art instruments for i) aerosol in situ, ii) aerosol active and passive remote sensing, iii) trace gases in site, iv) mobile units v) equipment for greenhouse gases measurements as well as vi) air quality sensors (low and medium cost). It can therefore support several of the ACTRIS activities and be an ideal place not only for training on a big range of state-of-the-art instruments but performing cutting edge science. The infrastructure is distributed between 2-5 Kms and offers sites representing urban background, suburban background and regional background for several applications and new instrument testing.
CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO)
Location: Tito (Potenza), Italy
Web site address: www.ciao.imaa.cnr.it
CIAO is one of the most advanced infrastructures for ground based remote sensing in Europe equipped by multi-wavelength lidar and scanning cloud radar plus operative instruments. CIAO consists of a combination of advanced systems able to provide high quality long-term observations of aerosol and cloud properties. As a part of ACTRIS, it is one of the components of CARS (Centre for Aerosol Remote Sensing), being equipped with one of the two reference lidar systems for ACTRIS Aerosol Remote Sensing component. CIAO is going to enlarge the equipment with more advanced state of the art lidar systems, and instruments for aerosol in situ and clouds and trace gases remote sensing measurements. Additionally in the next few years CIAO will be equipped with ICOS Atmospheric in situ instruments. CIAO geographic position, in the Mediterranean basin but on a mountain far from big cities, makes the observatory a perfect location for investigating different aerosol types and atmospheric processes and setting up experiments with the support of the researches and technicians operating CIAO.
Monte Cimone – Po Valley (CMN-PV)
Location: Monte Cimone (with possibility to access also at S. Pietro Capofiume and Bologna)
Web site address: https://atmo-access.isac.cnr.it/
The “O. Vittori” observatory at Mt. Cimone (CMN, 2165 m a.s.l.), is the only high mountain station for atmospheric research both South of the Alps and the Po basin: it represents a strategic platform to study the South Europe and Mediterranean basin troposphere and the anthropogenic emissions from the Po basin. At this site co-located ICOS and ACTRIS observations exist: the “O. Vittori” observatory is an ICOS-RI class-2 station and an associated AGAGE station. Mt. Cimone is integrated with the “S. Pietro Capofiume” rural site (43°21 N, 12°34 E, 11 m a.s.l.) and the “Bologna Urban Observatory” (43°21 N, 12°34; E, 39 m a.s.l.). This latter site is equipped with ACTRIS compliant sampling systems for trace gases and aerosol properties. Continuous measurement programmes for aerosol properties, trace gases, columnar content and vertical profiling, meteorological parameters are carried out at Mt. Cimone.
Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR)
Location: Lopik, the Netherlands
Web site address: www.cesar-observatory.nl; www.ruisdael-observatory.nl
The Cabauw site is used for: monitoring atmospheric change, atmospheric and land surface processes for climate modelling, validation of satellite observations and atmospheric models, development and implementation of new measurement techniques, and for training and education. At the site a comprehensive set of in-situ and active and passive remote sensing instruments is operated. It is the focal point of experimental atmospheric research in The Netherlands and main site for the national Ruisdael Observatory for atmospheric research covering ACTRIS and ICOS. The site consists of a 213m tall tower hosting in-situ observations of aerosols, trace gases and greenhouse gases, a remote sensing terrain, a radiation station and a field for micro-meteorological observations. The observational programme consists of in situ measurements of soil hydrology, surface fluxes of wind, temperature, humidity, the radiation budget, energy balance, rain, tower-based profiles of wind, temperature, profiling of aerosols, clouds and humidity, GHG at high precision and tracers. In situ aerosol observations include size distribution, scattering and absorption, chemical composition and CCN. Off-site, an atmospheric chemistry lab dedicated to high precision isotope ratio measurements on atmospheric trace species and volatile organic compounds, CFC’s and aerosols is operated.
Warsaw Observatory Station (WOS)
Location: Warsaw, Poland
Web site address: https://www.igf.fuw.edu.pl/en/instruments/
The WOS located in the urban agglomeration of Warsaw (lowlands of East-Central Europe) is a research facility of the Faculty of Physics at the Research University of Warsaw. This observational site, established in 2013, proved to be very active within the ACTRIS. It is composed of main laboratories: Remote Sensing Lab, Radiation Transfer Lab and Fluid dynamics Lab with collocated ground based and elevated (25m) platforms and electronic workshop, optical clean room, seminar and social rooms where users can deploy their own instruments. It is equipped with sensors providing information on aerosol optical properties and water vapour that permit measurements within the free troposphere and in the boundary layer over Warsaw.
EVora Atmospheric Science Observatory (EVASO)
Location: Evora, Portugal
Web site address: http://www.icterra.pt/g1/index.php/infrastructures/
EVASO is a background station, located in the less densely populated region in south western Europe, suffering events of aerosol loading due to long range transport from the Saharan regions (mineral dust) as well as episodes of biomass burning due to local or remote forest fires. In addition, the high number of cloudless days allows for long term observations in cloud free conditions. The EVASO infrastructure includes an atmospheric science observatory equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation for aerosol and trace gases active and passive remote sensing as well as several instruments for in-situ aerosol monitoring.
Romanian Atmospheric 3D research Observatory (RADO)
Location: Magurele, Romania
Web site address: http://environment.inoe.ro
RADO is a GAW regional station, located in a suburban area, flat terrain, 6 km SW from Bucharest city. The site is ideal for studying aerosol microphysics, clear-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing, aerosol-cloud interaction, fog, local and long range transported pollution, satellite sub-pixel variability, etc. RADO also hosts a Unit of the ACTRIS topical Centre for Aerosol Remote Sensing which is responsible for the QA/QC of the high-power lidars. RADO operates: 1) aerosol remote sensing instrumentation 2) aerosol in situ instrumentation, 3) cloud remote sensing instrumentation, 4) trace gases remote sensing instrumentation, 5) meteorological and radiation instrumentation: RADO offers physical and remote access to the facility for developing specific research projects and experiments based on synergy of measurements, training, scientific and satellite Cal/Val campaigns, testing of prototypes through direct comparisons.
Izana Subtropical Access Facility (ISAF)
Location: La Orotava, Tenerife, Spain
Web site address: http://izana.aemet.es/
ISAF is a Global Atmospheric Watch observatory located on a mountaintop at 2370 m.a.s.l. on Tenerife, Canary Islands, most of the time under free-troposphere conditions. It allows performing in-situ measurements of the NW North Atlantic airflows which may contain species emitted from anthropogenic emissions in North America, desert dust aerosol from the Sahara. Long term monitoring of in-situ greenhouse and reactive gases have been carried out since 1984, including aerosol in-situ and remote sensing, gas remote sensing and in-situ Greenhouse gases. It is a unique BSRN station to studies on dust radiative forcing. It host part of the CARS ACTRIS Central Facility. New technical developments are carried out under collaborations with private companies.
Barcelona Cluster (BCN)
Location: Barcelona, Spain
Barcelona Cluster (CSIC-UPC) Atmospheric Research network is a unique infrastructure for atmospheric research located in NE Spain. It is integrated by a cluster of three observational platforms for atmospheric aerosols: Montsec (MSA, mountain site, 1590 m a.s.l.), Montseny (MSY, Regional background, 720 m a.s.l.), and Barcelona (BCN, Urban background, 78 m a.s.l.). The network of sites is well-equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation complying with ACTRIS requirements for aerosol in –situ (MSA, MSY and BCN) and remote sensing (BCN) observational facilities, and with tools to estimate the aerosol radiative effects. All sites are also equipped with instruments for trace gases and two of them (MSY and BCN) will be equipped with instruments for VOCs online. Ceilometers are also operated at MSA and MSY, and a MPLNET lidar at BCN. Access to the network permits investigating three different environments, connecting Air Quality, Health and Climate Research. It is the only infrastructure as such in the Western Mediterranean Basin, a unique region for atmospheric research given the high insolation, the specific meteorology, the elevated emissions of pollutants, and the frequent impact of dust outbreaks.
Andalusian Global ObseRvatory of the Atmosphere (AGORA)
Location: Granada, Spain
Web site address: https://atmosphere.ugr.es
AGORA, located in Southern Spain, includes the main site: UGR station (37° 9’49.21″N, 3°36’17.94″W, 680 m a.s.l.) located in Granada and SNS station (37.09 N; 3.38 W; 2800 m a.s.l.) located at Sierra Nevada. Both stations operated as a combined observatory, allowing a synergetic study of aerosol and cloud interaction. UGR combines long-term monitoring of atmospheric aerosol and clouds by active and passive remote sensing, with in-situ measurements of aerosol particles and atmospheric radiation at several spectral ranges. SNS provides information on aerosol and cloud with in-situ instrumentation located around 2000 m above UGR station but within the same atmospheric column.
Hyltemossa Research Station (HTM)
Location: Forest in southern Sweden; Nearest small town: Perstorp; Municipality: Klippan; Province: Skåne; Country: Sweden (56° 5′ 52″ N, 13°25′ 8″ E)
Web site address: http://www.icos-sweden.se/station_hyltemossa.html
HTM is located in a highly productive and well-managed 40 years old spruce forest (Picea abies), in southern Sweden, and is comprised of a 150m ICOS tower, a 30m ACTRIS tower, an ICOS/ACTRIS laboratory building, an ACTRIS laboratory outside the forest and a main house (office, accommodation facilities). HTM carries out continuous measurement of Greenhouse Gases under ICOS, and Aerosol in situ and reactive gases under ACTRIS. Further, wind speed/direction, air temperature and humidity are measured at the same levels as the GHG, air pressure near the ground. The planetary boundary layer height is measured by a ceilometer. An automatic flask sampler is in place at both stations for measurements of additional atmospheric trace gases from the top level.
High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ)
Location: Jungfraujoch, Switzerland
Web site address: http://www.hfsjg.ch/jungfraujoch/
The research programmes on trace gases (i.e. greenhouse gases, reactive air pollutants) and aerosols at the Jungfraujoch (JFJ, 3571 m a.s.l.) are among the most comprehensive worldwide. The JFJ is the highest research station in Europe that is accessible all year by rail, and it is the only accessible observation point in Europe with adequate infrastructure that is within the free troposphere most of the year. Therefore, the JFJ station is of utmost importance for ground-based observations of the free troposphere, which is reflected by its participation in more than thirty national and international networks for atmospheric research. EMPA continuously measures more than 70 gaseous species of reactive gases and greenhouse gases including some of their isotopes. PSI measures all aerosol variables including aerosol physical, optical and chemical properties. As the observatory is within clouds 40% of the time throughout the year, it provides a unique opportunity for in situ studies of liquid clouds (in summer) and mixed-phase and glaciated clouds (in winter).